Halaman

Jumaat, 6 Jun 2008

Kem Motivasi Maahad Ahmadi Gemenceh 2008


Antara pelajar muslimat yang hadir

Tazkirah disampaikan oleh saudara RAHIM, pelajar UIAM tahun ke 3.

slot Koreksi diri

ANTARA FASILITATOR DAN AJK PELAKSANA
(aksi telah dipersetujui oleh semua)

Antara pelajar muslimin yang hadir


Bismillahirrahmanirrahim...

Alhamdulillah.... selesai sudah kem motivasi di Maahad Ahmadi Gemenceh, Negeri 9. Berlangsung selama 3 hari, iaitu bermula pada 30mei dan berakhir pada 1 jun. Pelajar terdiri daripada PMR, SPM dan juga STAM. Semua sekali adalah dalam 200 orang pelajar.

Tenaga penggerak ditambah dengan barisan Fasilitator ada lebih kurang 31 orang kesemuanya.

Kem ini dianjurkan oleh ALUMNI Maahad Ahmadi Gemenceh.


-kepada pengarah program ni, ana lupa nama kem ni la. jadi ana just letak "kem motivasi". (maap ye )

2 ulasan:

Kraxpelax berkata...

Olof Palme
Cats Falck
Lena Gräns
Carl Algernon
Claes Ulrik Winbergh and his wife
Hilding Eek
Ingvar Heimer
Gunnarsson


They were all murdered

Odd Engström
Milan Valverius

They were possibly murdered

Curt Nicolin
Sten Andersson

They committed suicide

These deaths make ONE context

As Mr Henrik Sundholm, objectivist!

HIV explodes in Sweden right now

Ask Mr. Henrik Sundholm, objectivist!

Sarkofag; Estonia; Chickenpox
Scandinavian Star

What does this mean?

Ask Mr. Henrik Sundholm, objectivist!


http://www.equil.net/

INTRODUCTION

1. 80% of American HIV cases are homosexuals.

Primary source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services -- Centers for Disease Control. "HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report." July 1993 Vol. 5 No. 2.

Up to 55% of males with nanorectal complaints have gonnorhaea.
80 percent of the patients with syphilis are homosexuals.
Chlamydia is found in 15 percent of asymptomatic homosexual men.
Up to one third of homosexuals have active anorectal herpes simplex virus.

Primary source: Wexner, SD. "Sexually Transmitted Disease of the Colon Rectum and Anus." Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 1990; Vol. 33 (1048-1062).

2. In addition, a host of parasites, bacterial, viral, and protozoan are rampant in the homosexual population.

Primary source: Witte M, Stuntz M, Witte C, Way D. "AIDS, KaposiSarcoma, and the Gay Population." International Journal of Dermatology, 1989; Vol. 28 No.9 (585-586).

3. Oral and Anal intercourse present physicians with surgical as well as medical problems, ranging from anal fissures and impaction of foreign bodies in the rectum to major diagnostic dilemmas.

Primary source: Dritz SK. "Medical Aspects of Homosexuality." The New England Journal of Medicine, 1980; Vol. 302 No. 8 (463-464).

4. homosexual male practices such as "receptive anal and oral intercourse and oral-anal contact, recurrent rectal trauma associated with 'fisting,'" and venereal and parasitic infections, lead to many medical problems including tissue inflammation.

Primary source: Witte M, Stuntz M, Witte C, Way D. "AIDS, KaposiSarcoma, and the Gay Population." International Journal of Dermatology, 1989; Vol. 28 No.9 (585-586).


5. Homosexually active men have frequent intestinal and rectal symptoms resulting from sexually acquired gastrointestinal infections.

Primary source: Surawicz CM, Goodell SE, Quinn TC, Roberts PL, Corey L, Holmes KK, Schuffler MD, Stamm WE. "Spectrum of Rectal Biopsy Abnormalities in Homosexual Men With Intestinal Symptoms." Gastroenterology, 1986; Vol. 91 (651-659).

6. In 1990, a study appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association concluding that homosexuals should use condoms to protect against the transmission of hepatitis B.

Primary source: Kingsley LA, Rinaldo CR, Lyter DW Valdiserri RO, Belle SH, Ho M. "Sexual Transmission Efficiency of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Among Homosexual Men." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1990; Vol. 264 (230-234).

7. "It would seem that anal insertive intercourse is inherently dangerous and should be proscribed."

Harder R, "HBV, HIV, and the Proscription of Intercourse." (Letter). Journal of the American Medical Association, 1990; Vol. 264 (2625).

8. It's generally objected STD:s hits heteros as well.

CF: Kingsley LA, Rinaldo CR, Ho M. "In Reply." (Letter). Journal of the American Medical Association, 1990; Vol. 264 (2625).

9, 10, 11. But sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) strike homosexuals at a rate many times higher than that of heterosexuals.

Primary sources:
a. Vincelette J, Baril JG, Allard R. "Predictors of Chlamydial Infection and Gonorrhea Among Patients Seen by Private Practitioners." Canadian Medical Association, 1991 Vol. 144 No. 6 (713-721).
b. Felman Y, Morrison JM. "Examining the Homosexual Male for Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1980; Vol. 238 No. 19 (2046-2047).
c. British Co-operative Clinical Group. "Homosexuality and Venereal Disease in the United Kingdom -- A Second Study." British Journal of Venereal Diseases, 1980 Vol. 56 (6-11).

BACTERIA

Bacteria

12. One study of homosexuals in New York city found that "... 64.3 percent of the [homosexual] men reported a history of gonorrhea and/or syphilis."

Primary source: Koblin BA, Morrison JM, Taylor PE, Stoneburner RL, Stevens CE. "Mortality Trends in a Cohort of Homosexual Men in New York City, 1978-1988." American Journal of Epidemiology, 1992; Vol. 136 No. 6 (646-656).

13, 15, 16. Gonorrhea. Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted disease and perhaps the most common STD found in homosexual men.13 Gonorrhea is an inflammatory disease of genital track. In the homosexual communities, this disease has appeared in non-traditional locations. For example, gonorrhea traditionally occurs on the genitals, but recently it has appeared in the rectal region and in the throat.

Primary sources:

American Journal of Epidemiology, 1980; Vol. 112 (836-843).
# Owen W. "Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Traumatic Problems in Homosexual Men." Annals of Internal Medicine, 1980; Vol. 92 (805-808).

# Janda WM, Bohnhoff M, Morello JA, Lerner SA. "Prevalence and Site-Pathogen Studies of Neisseria meningitides and N gonorrhea in Homosexual Men." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1980; Vol. 244 No. 18 (2060-2064).

# Rompalo A. "Sexually Transmitted Causes of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Homosexual Men." Medical Clinics of North America, 1990; Vol. 74 No. 6 (1633-1645).

17. Gonorrhea is strongly associated with homosexual behavior at a rate higher than heterosexual behavior. In a study published by the Canadian Medical Association Journal in 1991, "...gonorrhea was associated with urethral discharge ... and homosexuality (3.7 times higher than the rate among heterosexuals).

Primary source: Vincelette J, Baril JG, Allard R. "Predictors of Chlamydial Infection and Gonorrhea Among Patients Seen by Private Practitioners." Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1991; Vol. 144 No. 6 (713-721).

18. This is especially true of gonorrhea of the pharynx (throat). A study published in the Journal of Clinical Pathology found, "In homosexual men a much higher prevalence of pharyngeal gonorrhoea (15.2 percent; two of the 13) was observed in comparison with heterosexual men (4.1 percent)."

Primary source: Jebakumar SPR, Storey C, Nelson J, Goorney B, Haye KR. "Value of screening for oropharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis infection." Journal of Clinical Pathology, 1995; Vol. 48 (658-661).

19. As pharyngeal gonorrhea results from oral sex with an infected partner, anorectal (anal) gonorrhea is spread through anal sex with a man infected with urethral gonorrhea. Physicians have promoted "safer sex" in an effort to stem the spread of gonorrhea. While for several years statistics seemed to indicate the plan may be working, the numbers began to rise again in the early 1990s. The American Journal of Public Health published a study of Amsterdam STD clinics that found, "After several years of decline, the number and percentage of diagnosed cases of gonorrhea among homosexual and bisexual clients of sexually transmitted disease clinics in Amsterdam started to increase again in 1989. This rise continued in 1990 and 1991."

Primary source: deWit JBF, van den Hoek JAR, Sandfort TGM, Griensven GJP. "Increase in Unprotected Anogenital Intercourse Among Homosexual Men." American Journal of Public Health, 1993; Vol. 83 No. 10 (1451-1453).


20. This study mirrors one done in King County, Washington, which yielded similar results.

Primary source: Handsfield H, Schwebke J. "Trends in Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Homosexually Active Men in King County, Washington, 1980-1990." Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 1990; October-December (211-215).

21. Unlike its effect on the genitals, when gonorrhea infects the pharynx and rectal regions, it often emerges without symptoms.

Primary source: Janda WM, Bohnhoff M, Morello JA, Lerner SA. "Prevalence and Site-Pathogen Studies of Neisseria meningitides and N gonorrhea in Homosexual Men." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1980; Vol. 244 No. 18 (2060-2064).

22. And even if it does emerge with symptoms, those symptoms can be easily misinterpreted as simply a sore throat or misdiagnosed as part of a simultaneous ailment such as hemorrhoids.

Primary source: Owen W. "Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Traumatic Problems in Homosexual Men." Annals of Internal Medicine, 1980; Vol. 92 (805-808).

23. The Journal of the American Medical Association stressed the importance of properly diagnosing these infections: "Detection and treatment of these occult infections are essential, because gonococcal "carriers" represent reservoirs of potential infection in the community.

Primary source: Janda WM, Bohnhoff M, Morello JA, Lerner SA. "Prevalence and Site-Pathogen Studies of Neisseria meningitides and N gonorrhea in Homosexual Men." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1980; Vol. 244 No. 18 (2060-2064).

24. Primary anal syphilis is marked by anal ulcers that typically appear within two to six weeks of exposure to the spirochet. However, the ulcers may not appear for up to three months after initial exposure. The lesion that appears can be one of two types. One is particularly painful. The other causes little irritation. In the case of the painful variety, it may be mistaken for an anal fissure.

Primary source: # Wexner SD, "Sexually Transmitted Diseases of the Colon, Rectum, and Anus." Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 1990; Vol. 33 (1048-1062).

25. The Archives of Internal Medicine reported on a study in 1991 that found, "Homosexually active men are significantly more likely to report syphilis and less likely to present with primary syphilis than heterosexual men.

Primary source. Hutchinson CM, Rompalo AM, Reichart MT, Hook EW. "Characteristics of Patients With Syphilis Attending Baltimore STD Clinics." Archives of Internal Medicine, 1991; Vol. 151 (511-516).

26. The British Co-operative Clinical Group noted that homosexuals acquired syphilis at a rate ten times that of heterosexuals.

Primary source: Hutchinson CM, Rompalo AM, Reichart MT, Hook EW. "Characteristics of Patients With Syphilis Attending Baltimore STD Clinics." Archives of Internal Medicine, 1991; Vol. 151 (511-516).

27, 28, 29. Other journals also note a high correlation of homosexuality and syphilis.

Primary sources:

# Felman Y, Morrison JM. "Examining the Homosexual Male for Sexually Transmitted Diseases." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1980; Vol. 238 No. 19 (2046-2047).

# Catteral RD. "Sexually Transmitted Diseases of the Anus and Rectum." Clinics in Gastoenterology, 1975; Vol. 4, No. 3 (659-669).

# Quinn TC, Lukehart SA, Goodell S, Mkrtichian E, Shuffler MD, Holmes KK, "Rectal Mass Caused by Treponema pallidum: Confirmation by Immunofluorescent Staining." Gastroenterology, 1987; Vol. 82 (135-139).

ENTERIC INFECTIONS

30, 31, 32. An enteric infection is one that involves the intestines, and many of these are caused by various protozoa and bacteria. Decades ago many of these diseases were considered "exotic" diseases acquired through foreign travel or consuming contaminated food or water. However throughout the 1970s and 1980s, medical journals have noted their spread in homosexual communities.

Primary sources:

# Most H. "Manhattan: 'A Tropical Isle?'" Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1968; Vol. 17 (333-354).

# Phillips SC, Mildvan D, William DC, Gelb AM, White MC. "Sexual Transmission of Enteric Protozoa and Helminths in a Venereal-Disease-Clinic Population." The New England Journal of Medicine, 1981; Vol. 305 No. 11 (603-606).

# Koblin BA, Morrison JM, Taylor PE, Stoneburner RL, Stevens CE. "Morality Trends in a Cohort of Homosexual Men in New York City, 1978-1988." American Journal of Epidemiology, 1992; Vol. 136 No. 6 (646-656).


33. One study published in the New England Journal of Medicine reported, "At least 80 percent of homosexual men presenting to our sexually transmitted disease clinic with anorectal or intestinal symptoms were infected with one or more sexually transmissible anorectal or enteric pathogens. Such infections were also found in 39 percent of homosexual men presenting to the clinic without intestinal symptoms.

Primary source: Quinn TC, Stamm WE, Goodell SE, Mkrtichian E, Benedetti J, Corey L, Shuffler MD, Homes KK. "The Polymicro Origin of Intestinal Infections in Homosexual Men." The New England Journal of Medicine, 1983; Vol 309 (576-582).

34. The Annals of Clinical Research published a study in 1985 that examined 153 homosexual men. "Intestinal protozoa were found in 91 of the homosexual men, altogether 198 organisms were identified ...

Primary source: Jokipii, L. et.al.. "Frequency, Multiplicity and Repertoire of Intestinal Protozoa in Healthy Homosexual Men and in Patients with Gastrointestinal Symptoms," Annals of Clinical Research 1985; Vol. 17 (57-59).


35. Shigellosis. Shigella is a bacterium that commonly infects the intestinal tract of homosexual men. Infection with this bacterium is marked by diarrhea, fever, nausea, and cramps. In the early 1970s, public health officials noted it as a problem. "The San Francisco Department of Public Health has recognized a venereal outbreak of enteritis due to Shigella Flexneri 2a during the first half of 1974, " Dr. Selma Dritz noted in the New England Journal of Medicine. "Of the more than 50 cases reported, almost 60 percent occurred in young adult men, a majority of whom were habitu鳠of the city's gay community."

Primary source: Jokipii, L. et.al.. "Frequency, Multiplicity and Repertoire of Intestinal Protozoa in Healthy Homosexual Men and in Patients with Gastrointestinal Symptoms," Annals of Clinical Research 1985; Vol. 17 (57-59).


36. Campylobacter is another bacteria that often infects the intestinal tract of homosexual men. One study of 113 patients found, "Campylobacter jejuni was the most common organism in the entire cohort, but Shigella species were most common in homosexual men." While that study did not specifically link campylobacter to homosexuality, other doctors have noted the connection. In 1987 eight physicians wrote Lancet noting, "it seems that the sexual practices of male homosexuals may facilitate colonisation with this organism."

Primary source: Dritz SK, Back AF. "Shigella Enteritis Venereally Transmitted." The New England Journal of Medicine, 1974; November 28 (1194).


37. Amebiasis. An amebiasis is an infection of the large intestine, caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Homosexual populations have been hit hard by various types of amebiasis. The link was noted in the 1970s. "In 1975, 1,235 cases of amebiasis were reported from New York City. This represented 44.5 percent of the total number of cases nationwide," an article in the New York State Journal of Medicine stated. It went on to comment, "Although sexual orientation cannot be assessed from these statistics, a very significant portion of the cases occurring in native New Yorkers were probably within the homosexual community.

Primary source: William DC, Felman YM, Marr JS, Shookhoff HB. "Sexually Transmitted Enteric Pathogens in Male Homosexual Population." New York State Journal of Medicine, 1977; November (2050-2051).


38. G. Lamblia is a flagellate protozoan that causes giardiasis, which is a disease characterized by diarrhea.

Primary source: Merriam-Webster Medical Desk Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Inc. 1993.


39. HarrisonPrinciples of Internal Medicine reports, "In one New York Study, all nontraveled immunocompetent males with giardiasis were, in fact, homosexual."

Primary source: Petersdorf, R.G., et. al. "Giardiasis," Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Tenth Edition, (New York: McGraw Hill Book Company).


40. Both G. Lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica parasites can be transmitted through oral-anal intercourse, as they live in the stool. A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine found that "the most powerful predictors of E. histolytica and G. lamblia infection was homosexuality."


Primary source: Phillips SC, Mildvan D, William DC, Gelb AM, White MC. "Sexual Transmission of Enteric Protozoa and Helminths in a Venereal-Disease-Clinic Population." The New England Journal of Medicine, 1981; Vol. 305 No. 11 (603-606).

41. Interestingly enough, the study went on to note that homosexuality represented a higher risk for these parasites "not because of its unique association with any sexual practices (anilingus was practiced by 17 percent of heterosexuals, 37 percent of bisexuals and 75 percent of homosexuals in our study) but because only in homosexuals is there both a large reservoir of infection (endemic level) and a prevalent mode of transmission."

Primary source: Ibid.

42. In a study of 200 homosexual men and 100 heterosexual men, "Entamoeba histolytica was isolated from 27 percent of the homosexual and 1 percent of the heterosexual men. Giardia lamblia was isolated from 13 percent of the homosexual and 3 percent of the heterosexual men.

Primary source: Keystone JS, Keystone DL, Procter EM. "Intestinal parasitic infections in homoseuxal men: prevalence, symptoms and factors in transmission." Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1980; Vol. 123 (512-514).


43. Other studies reinforce these conclusions for E. histolytica


Primary source: Allason-Jones E, Midel A, Sargeaunt P, Katz D. " Outcome of untreated infection with Entamoeba histolytica in homosexual men with and without HIV." British Journal of Medicine, 1988; Vol. 297 (569-802).

44....and G. Lamblia.

Primary source: Simmon PD. "Sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual men." The Practitioner, 1985; Vol. 229 (1003-1008).

VIRUSES

45. Hepatitis A and B can be sexually transmitted and homosexuals are at high risk for both.

Primary source: Andrews H, Wyke J, Lane M, Clay J, Keighley MRB, Allan RN. "Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Disease Among Male Patients Presenting with Proctisis," Gut, 1988; Vol. 29 (332-335).

46. One study of a community-wide outbreak of Hepatitis A concluded, "Hepatitis A infection among homosexual and bisexual men is associated with oral-anal and digital-rectal intercourse, as well as with increasing numbers of anonymous sex partners and group sex."

Primary source: Henning KJ, Bell E, Braun J, Barker N. "A Community Wide Outbreak of Hepatitis A: Risk Factors for Infection Among Homosexual and Bisexual Men." The American Journal of Medicine, 1995; Vol. 99 (132-136).

47.Another study found that Hepatitis B is easily spread through homosexual contact. The study stated: "These data suggest that HBV [hepatitis B virus] is transmitted 8.6-fold more efficiently than HIV-1 among homosexual men studied ..."

Primary source: Kingsly LA, PH, Rinaldo CR, Lyter DW, Valdiserri RO, Belle SH, Ho M. "Sexual Transmission Efficiency of Hepatitis B Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Among Homosexual Men." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1990; Vol. 264 No. 2 (230-234).

48. Hepatitis C appears to be less of a threat to the homosexual community. The Journal on Infectious Disease found, "In a cross-sectional study of homosexual or bisexual men in San Francisco, only 4.6 percent of 735 men were positive for anti-HCV [hepatitis C virus] antibody while 81 percent were positive for any HBV [hepatitis B virus] serologic marker ..."

Primary source: Osmond D, Charlebois E, Sheppard HW, Page K, Winklestein W, Moss AR, Reingold A. "Comparison of Risk Factors for Hepatitis C and Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Homosexual Men." The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1992; Vol. 167 (66-71).

49. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that causes genital or anal warts and is associated with cancer. For years HPV was linked to vaginal and cervical cancer in women. In recent years, medical studies have noted the spread of HPV in homosexual communities. One study published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases stated, "Reports of an association between clinically identified anal warts and homosexual behavior predate the AIDS epidemic and undoubtedly reflect increased exposure of this population to HPV during receptive anorectal intercourse."

Primary source: Kiviat N, Rompalo A, Bowden R, Galloway D, Holmes K, Corey L, Roberts PL, Stamm W. "Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Human Immunodeficiency." The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1990; Vol. 162 (358-361).

50. Today, studies suggest a link between HPV and anal cancer in homosexual males -- particularly those who are HIV+. An article published in the Journal of the American Medical Association stated, "These studies indicate that immunosuppressed male homosexuals have a high prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and this population may be at significant risk for the development of anal cancer."

Primary source: Palefsky JM, Gonzales J, Greenblatt RM, Ahn DK, Hollander H. "Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Anal Papillomavirus Infection Among Homosexual Males With Group IV HIV Disease." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1990; Vol. 263 No. 21 (2911-2916).

51. an article published in the New England Journal of Medicine concluded: "Anal intercourse may predispose to anal cancer through the transmission of an infection, most probably infection with human papillomavirus."

Primary source: Daling JR, Weiss NS, Hislop G, Maden C, Coates RJ, Sherman KJ, Ashley RL, Beagrie M, Ryan JA, Corey L. "Sexual Practices, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and the Incidence of Anal Cancer." The New England Journal of Medicine, 1987; Vol. 317 (973-977).

52. Herpes simplex is a common STD marked by watery blisters on the genitalia. It can also occur in the anorectal area, primarily in passive homosexual men.

Primary source: Catteral RD. "Sexually Transmitted Diseases of the Anus and Rectum." Clinics in Gastoenterology, 1975; Vol. 4, No. 3 (659-669).

53. Homosexuals suffering from herpes simplex proctitis experience severe anorectal pain and may have difficulty urinating.

Primary source: Goodell SE, Quinn TC, Mkrtichian E, Shuffler MD, Holmes KK, Corey L. "Herpes Simplex Virus Proctisis in Homosexual Men." The New England Journal of Medicine, 1983; Vol. 308 (868-871).

54. While Herpes is a disease that affects both homosexuals and heterosexuals, a side-by-side comparison of heterosexual males to homosexual males shows that homosexual men are at a higher risk.
The Journal of the American Medical Association found that "among men, report of any lifetime homosexual activity was associated with an elevated risk for HSV-2 [herpes simplex virus - 2]."

Primary source: Seigel, D, Golden E, Washington E, Morse SA, Fullilove MT, Catania JA, Marin B, Hulley SB. "Prevalence and Correlates of Herpes Simplex Infections: The Population-Based AIDS in Multiethnic Neighborhoods Study." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1992; Vol. 268 No. 13 (1702-1708).

55. The link between homosexuality and herpes simplex-2 has also been noted in other journals.

Primary source: Simmons PD. "Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Homosexual Men." The Practitioner, 1985; Vol. 229 (1003-1008).

56. Cytomegalovirus is a virus that commonly infects homosexual men and can be serious when the patient suffers immunosuppressed conditions such as AIDS. This virus can infect both heterosexuals and homosexuals, but again, homosexuals seem to suffer from cytomegalovirus at a much higher rate. A study published in the American Journal of Medicine showed,"... heterosexual men in a sexually transmitted disease clinic have a substantially lower prevalence of cytomegalovirus seropositivity than do homosexual men."

Primary source: Collier AC, Meyers JD, Corey C, Murphy VL, Roiberts PL, Handsfield H. "Cytomegalovirus Infection in Homosexual Men." American Journal of Medicine, 1987; Vol. 82 (593-600).

57. In fact, an article published in the British Journal of Venereal Disease noted "Sexual orientation was shown to be the most important determinant of antibody to CMV [cytomegalovirus] in this population."

Primary source: Mindel A, Southerland S. "Antibodies to Cytomegalovirus in homosexual and heterosexual men attending an STD Clinic." British Journal of Venereal Disease, 1984; Vol. 60 (189-92).

58. In a population that represents the majority of AIDS cases, CMV is particularly frightening. A study published in the Journal of Infectious Diseases reported, "DMAC [disseminated Mycobacterium avium] and CMV are causing substantial and increasing morbidity among AIDS patients."

Primary source: Katz MH, Hessol NA, Buchbinder SP, Hirozawa A, O'Malley PO, Holmberg SD. "Temporal Trends of Opportunistic Infections and Malignancies in Homosexual Men with AIDS." Journal of Infectious Diseases, 1994; Vol. 170 (198-202).

5. HIV AIDS

59. 1987, the federal government embarked upon an education campaign to protect the nation against the spread of AIDS. It was called "America Responds to AIDS." This media campaign flooded the airwaves with the horrifying message that "anyone" could get AIDS. The risk of contracting AIDS through heterosexual vaginal intercourse is many times lower than anal intercourse or IV drug use. Consider the odds: The problem was that although that message may be technically true, it is terribly deceptive. AIDS remains primarily a disease of homosexuals and IV drug users. Homosexuals and IV drug users make up more than 80 percent of AIDS cases in the United States.

Primary source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services -- Centers for Disease Control. "HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report." July 1993 Vol. 5 No. 2.

60. Dr. Walter Dowdle, a virologist at the Centers for Disease Control involved with the education campaign, told the Wall Street Journal, "As long as this was seen as a gay disease or, even worse, a disease of drug abusers, that pushed the disease way down the ladder" in priority in Americans' minds.60


Primary source: Bennett A, Sharpe A. "Health Hazard: AIDS Fight Is Skewed by Federal Campaign Exaggerating Risks," The Wall Street Journal, May 1, 1996.

61.The New York Times reported with tabloid sensationalism: "In a development that reflects the changing demographic face of the AIDS epidemic in this country, heterosexual transmission accounted for the largest proportionate increase in AIDS cases reported last year..."

Primary source: Ibid.

62. The latest statistics from the reveal that homosexuals and IV drug abusers make up 83 percent of all AIDS cases in America. Heterosexual contact accounts for only 8 percent of the cases, and nearly half (47 percent) of heterosexuals who have contracted AIDS were the sexual partners of drug abusers.

Primay source: Altman L, "AIDS Cases Increase Among Heterosexuals," The New York Times, March 11, 1996.

VI. CANCERS AND TUMORS

64. One article in the New England Journal of Medicine commented, "Our study lends strong support to the hypothesis that homosexual behavior in men increases the risk of anal cancer: 21 of the 57 men with anal cancer (37 percent) reported that they were homosexual or bisexual, in contrast to only one of 64 controls."

Primary source: Daling JR, Weiss NS, Hislop G, Maden C, Coates RJ, Sherman KJ, Ashley RL, Beagrie M, Ryan JA, Corey L. "Sexual Practices, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and the Incidence of Anal Cancer." New England Journal of Medicine, 1987; Vol. 317 No. 16 (973-937).

65. The Journal of the American Medical Association also published similar findings: "Epidemiological studies have shown that risk factors for anal cancer include homosexuality, history of receptive anal intercourse, presence of anal condylomata, and smoking."

Primary source: Palefsky JM, Gonzales J, Greenblatt RM, Ahn DK, Hollander H. "Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Anal Papillomavirus Infection Among Homosexual Males With Group IV HIV Disease." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1990; Vol. 263 (2911-2916).

66. And the International Journal of Cancer stated, "Being single and having practised anal intercourse appears to be associated with anal cancer and case reports have suggested a recent increase in the number of cases of anal cancer.

Primary source: Melbye M, Palefsky J, Gonzales J, Ryder L, Henrik N, Bergmann O, Pindborg J, Biggar R. "Immune Status as a Determinant of Human Papillomavirus Detection and its association with anal epithelial abnormalities" International Journal of Cancer,

67, 68. B Other studies have yielded the same conclusions.

Primary source:

# Frisch M, Melbye M, Moller H. "Trends in Incidents of Anal Cancer in Denmark." British Medical Journal, 1993; Vol. 306 (419-422).

# Wexner SD, Milson JW, Dailey TH. "The Demographics of Anal Cancers are Changing." Dis. Colon and Rectum, 1987; Vol. 30 (942-946).

69. Kaposi's Sarcoma. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an AIDS-related cancer that affects the mucous membranes and the skin of its victims. It is marked by reddish-brown or bluish tumors. In years past it was primarily a benign disease that affected older men in the Mediterranean regions. In recent years it has earned a reputation for being a deadly disease in AIDS patients. - Homosexuals' sexual behavior places them at high risk for this disease. The International Journal of Dermatology explains why: "In this high risk group [the gay male population], the predominant portal of entry of free and cell-bound HIV as well as the brunt of associated cofactors and opportunistic infections can be traced to both ends of the gastrointestinal tract (mouth and anus) and also the genitalia, which happen to be common sites for KS lesions in addition to their lymphatic watersheds."

Primary source: Witte M, Stuntz M, Witte C, Way D. "AIDS, KaposiSarcoma, and the Gay Population." International Journal of Dermatology, 1989; Vol. 28 No. 9 (585-586).

70. AIDS reports: "According to our data, homosexual men had a significantly higher risk of progression to AIDS and shorter survival compared with IDU [IV drug users] and other categories. In a multivariate analysis the increased risk was found to be independent of demographic and clinical characteristics but was accounted for by the higher probability of developing Kaposi's sarcoma."

Primary source: Vella S, Giuliano M, Floridia M, Chiesi A, Tomino C, Seeber A, Barcherini S, Bucciardini R, and Mariotti S. "Effect of Sex, age and transmission category on the progression to survival of zidovudine-treated symptomatic patients." Current Science Ltd. AIDS, 1995; Vol. 9 (51-56).

71. The Journal of the American Medical Association noted the difficulty in treating this disease in the mid-1980s, "Kaposi's Sarcoma as currently seen in young, homosexual men is less responsive to chemotherapy, and in many cases displays a more aggressive, rapidly progressive course.

Primary source: Cole H. "AIDS Associated Disorders Pose Complex Therapeutic Challenges." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1988; Vol. 252 (1987-1988).

72. One study published in the Annuls of Medicine noted the connection between homosexual AIDS patients and Hodgkin disease. The study concluded, "An excess incidence of Hodgkin disease was found in HIV-infected homosexual men."

Primary source: Hessol N, Katz MH, Liu JY, Buchbinder DP, Rubino CJ, Holmberg SP. "Increased Incidence of Hodgkin Disease in Homosexual Men with HIV Infection." Annals of Internal Medicine, 1992; Vol. 117 No. 4 (309-311).

73. The Journal of Clinical Oncology published a study that further supports a connection between homosexual male AIDS patients and Hodgkin disease.
Primary source: Lyter DW, Bryant J, Thackeray R, Rinaldo CR, Kingsley LA. "Incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus -- Related and Nonrelated Malignancies in a Large Cohort of Homosexual Men." Journal of Clinical Oncology, 1995; Vol. 13 No. 10 (2540-2546).


VIII DRUGS / ALCOHOL ABUSE

74. "Substantially higher proportions of the homosexual sample used alcohol, marijuana, or cocaine than was the case in the general population."

Primary source:

# Rankow EJ. "Lesbian Health Issues for the Primary Care Provider." Journal of Family Practice, 1995; Vol. 40 No. 5 (486-492).

# Bradford J, Ryan C, Rothblum ED. "National Lesbian Health Care Survey: Implications for Mental Health Care." Journ


75, 76. When gay rights activists concede to the health facts regarding their lifestyle they argue that homosexuals simply need to be taught how to perform their sex acts safely. However, despite innumerable education efforts, the homosexual male population remains plagued by disease.
For afew years, activists had some statistics to back up this philosophy as rates of gonorrhea and syphilis dropped after education efforts. However, homosexuals, even after receiving education, did not sustain their "safe" activities for very long. A study conducted in Amsterdam and another study conducted in Washington state found a drop in gonorrhea and syphilis for several years in the 1980s. In both studies, that trend was followed by a marked increase in the rate of these diseases in the homosexual population, while the rate in the heterosexual population continued to fall.

Primary sources.

# # deWit JBF, Van den Hoek JAR, Sandfort TGM, Griensven GJP. "Increase in Unprotected Anogenital Intercourse Among Homosexual Men." American Journal of Public Health, 1993; Vol. 83 No. 10 (1451-1453).

# Van Den Hoek JAR, Van Grienven GJP, Coutinho RA. "Increase in Unsafe Homosexual Behavior" (Letter). Lancet, 1990; Vol. 336 (179-180).


77. One study published in Nursing Research noted that lesbians experience alcohol problems at a rate three times that of American women as a whole. The study also found: "Like most problem drinkers, 32 (91%) of the participants had abused other drugs as well as alcohol, and many reported compulsive difficulties with food (34%), codependency (29%), sex (11%), and money (6%). Forty-six percent had been heavy drinkers with frequent drunkenness; ..."

Primary source: Hall J, "Lesbians Recovering from Alcoholic Problems: An Ethnographic Study of Health Care Experiences." Nursing Research, 1994; Vol. 43 No. 4 (238-244).

78. Homosexual activists would argue that this population suffers from a higher rate of drug and alcohol problems because society will not accept their sexual orientation. However, a psychological study of nearly 2,000 lesbians from all 50 states found that most lesbians (57 percent) considered money the biggest worry in their life. The study went on to state, "Only 12 percent of respondents indicated that they were concerned about people knowing that they were lesbian."

Primary source: Bradford J, Ryan C, Rothblum ED. "National Lesbian Health Care Survey: Implications for Mental Health Care." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1994; Vol. 62 No. 2 (228-242).

IX. "SAFE SEX"

79, 80. A study conducted in Amsterdam and another study conducted in Washington state found a drop in gonorrhea and syphilis for several years in the 1980s. In both studies, that trend was followed by a marked increase in the rate of these diseases in the homosexual population, while the rate in the heterosexual population continued to fall.

Primary sources:

# deWit JBF, Van den Hoek JAR, Sandfort TGM, Griensven GJP. "Increase in Unprotected Anogenital Intercourse Among Homosexual Men." American Journal of Public Health, 1993; Vol. 83 No. 10 (1451-1453).

# Van Den Hoek JAR, Van Grienven GJP, Coutinho RA. "Increase in Unsafe Homosexual Behavior" (Letter). Lancet, 1990; Vol. 336 (179-180).

81. One study published in the British Journal of Medicine stated, "This study provides evidence of continuing unsafe sexual behavior among homosexual or bisexual men infected with HIV-1 attending genitourinary medicine clinics up to the end of 1993." The study further pointed out, "This is consistent with other data indicating an increase in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, within the male homosexual or bisexual community in England and Wales between 1988 and 1990."

Primary source: Catchpole MA, Mercey DE, Nicoll A, Rogers PA, Simms I, Newham J, Mahoney A, Parry JV, Joyce C, Gill ON. "Continuing Transmission of Sexually Transmitted Disease Among Patients Infected With HIV-1 Attending Genitourinary Medicine Clinics in England and Wales." British Medical Journal, 1996; Vol. 312 (539-542).

82. While it appears clear that homosexual men have a difficult time sustaining "safe" sexual behavior, the inevitable question is why? Medical and psychological experts have developed several explanations. Some homosexual men believe that once they have established a monogamous relationship, they aren't at risk. The American Journal of Public Health published a study in 1990 that found, "Being in a monogamous gay relationship was associated with higher risk sex throughout the entire study."

Primary source: McKusick L, Coats TJ, Morin SF, Pollack L, Hoff C. "Longitudinal Predictors of Reductions in Unprotected Anal Intercourse Among Gay Men in San Francisco: The AIDS Behavioral Research Project." American Journal of Public Health, 1990: Vol. 80 No. 8 (978-983).

83. Another theory is that the few years of decline in the rates of HIV and other STD infections have led homosexual men to let down their guard. The Journal of the American Medical Association reported, "Because of declining incidence of STD and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, some homosexually active men may have relaxed behaviors regarding sexual safety."

Primary source: Handsfield HH, Krekeler B, Nicola, RM. " Trends in Gonorrhea in Homosexually Active Men -- King County, Washington, 1989." Journal of the American Medical Association, 1989; Vol. 262 No. 20 (2985-2986).

84. A journal known as Sexually Transmitted Diseases developed a more psychological explanation. Dr. Edward W. Hook III wrote, "After all, if higher risk behaviors for HIV/STD remain desirable albeit dangerous for some, their status as 'forbidden fruit' might paradoxically serve as a stimulus rather than a deterrent to those practices."

Primary thought: Hook, EW. "Behavioral Relapse Among Homosexually Active Men: Implications for STD Control." Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 1990; October/December (161-162).

85. The simple ineffectiveness of condoms likely also contributed to the spread of disease. A study published in Social Science and Medicine found that the rate of condom effectiveness in protecting against HIV infection is only 69 percent. The study noted, "Thus, efficacy may be much lower than commonly assumed ..."

Primary source: Weller S. "A Meta-Analysis of Condom Effectiveness in Reducing Sexually Transmitted HIV." Soc Sci Med, 1993; Vol. 36 No.12 (1635-1644).

IX BORN OR BRED

86. One of the most often touted studies was conducted by Simon LeVay. His study, published in Science in 1991, noted a difference in a brain structure called the hypothalamus when evaluating homosexual and heterosexual men. LeVay found that in the specimens he studied, the hypothalamus was generally larger in heterosexual men than in homosexual men. Therefore he concluded that these findings "suggest that sexual orientation has a biologic substrate."

Primary source: LeVay S. "A Difference in Hypothalamic Structure Between Heterosexual and Homosexual Men." Science, 1991 Vol. 253 (1034-1037).

87. While LeVay's study received top-notch billing in the media, it was anything but conclusive. An analysis of the study and its methodology reveals some notable weaknesses. The first problem, which LeVay himself readily admits, is the fact that all 19 of his homosexual subjects had died of complications associated with AIDS. Therefore the difference in the hypothalamus might well be attributed to the AIDS rather than homosexuality. LeVay attempted to compensate for the weakness by including a few heterosexuals who died of AIDS complications in the heterosexual sample. However, LeVay did not know for sure whether all subjects in his heterosexual sample were indeed heterosexual; all of these subjects were simply "presumed heterosexual." Moreover, Dr. William Byne argued in Scientific American that "[LeVay's] inclusion of a few brains from heterosexual men with AIDS did not adequately address the fact that at the time of death virtually all men with AIDS have decreased testosterone levels as the result of the disease itself or the side effects of particular treatments.... Thus it is possible that the effects on the size of the INAH3 [hypothalamus] that he attributed to sexual orientation were actually caused by the hormonal abnormalities associated with AIDS."

Primary source: Byne E. "The Biological Evidence Challenged." Scientific American, 1994; May (50-55).

88. Finally another weakness of LeVay's study is the fact that even in his sample there were "exceptions" -- that is, there were some homosexuals who had larger hypothalamus structures than some of the heterosexuals examined. Even LeVay admits that these exceptions "hint at the possibility that sexual orientation, although an important variable, may not be the sole determinant of INAH3 [hypothalamus] size."

Primary source: LeVay S. "A Difference in Hypothalamic Structure Between Heterosexual and Homosexual Men." Science, 1991 Vol. 253 (1034-1037).

89. LeVay is an open homosexual, and his interview with Newsweek appears to indicate he had an agenda from the outset. LeVay lost his gay partner to AIDS, an event that made him re-evaluate what he was doing with his life. As a result, he took on this project. LeVay believes America must be convinced that homosexuality is determined biologically. "It's important to educate society," he told Newsweek. "I think this issue does affect religious and legal attitudes."

Primary source: Gelman D, Foote D, Barrett T, Talbot M. "Born or Bred." Newsweek, 1992; February 24 (46-53).

90. Hamer's results are often misunderstood. Many believe that the study found an identical sequence (Xq28) on the X chromosome of all homosexual brothers. In reality, what it found was matching sequences in each set of brothers who were both homosexual. Dr. Byne argues that in order to prove anything by this study, Hamer would have had to examine the Xq28 sequence of gay men's heterosexual brothers. Hamer insisted that such an inclusion would have confounded his study. Byne responded, "In other words, inclusion of heterosexual brothers might have revealed that something other than genes is responsible for sexual orientation."

Primary source: Byne E. "The Biological Evidence Challenged." Scientific American, 1994; May (50-55).

91. Hamer's motives are also questionable. Although Hamer's research is sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, his work has had little to do with cancer. This study alone took $419,000 of the institutetaxpayer-backed funds, according to the Washington Times.

Primary source: Price J. "Federal Cancer Lab Hunts for Gay Gene." The Washington Times, 1994; April 3.

92. One of Hamer's researchers told the Times that homosexuality is "not the only thing we study," but it is "a primary focus of study." Hamer reportedly stated that he has pushed for an Office of Gay and Lesbian Health inside the National Institutes of Health. And he testified in opposition to Colorado's Amendment 2. Sen. Robert C. Smith (R-NH) accused the doctor of "actively pursu[ing] ... a gay agenda."

Primary source: Ibid.

93. Another study that has advanced the theory that homosexuality is a biological phenomenon is the famed "Twin Study" by J. Michael Bailey and Richard C. Pillard. Bailey and Pillard examined identical and fraternal twin brothers and adopted brothers in an effort to establish a genetic link to homosexuality. The study results yielded some statistics that seem to support the hypothesis and other statistics that appear to refute it. Fifty-two percent of the identical twins shared the same homosexual sexual orientation while only 22 percent of fraternal twins fell in the same category. This finding appears to support the argument for biology since identical twins share the same genes. However, the rate of non-twin conformity should mirror that of fraternal twins. In the Bailey and Pillard study, the rate was only 9.2 percent. And the rate in adopted brothers -- which, if the biological hypothesis were true, should have been even lower than non-twin brothers -- was actually higher (11 percent).

Primary source: Bailey JM, Pillard RC. "A Genetic Study of Male Sexual Orientation." Archives of General Psychiatry, 1991; Vol. 48 (1089-1096).

94. In his article analyzing the medical evidence supporting a biological cause of homosexuality, Dr. Byne noted other twin studies. He wrote, "Without knowing what developmental experiences contribute to sexual orientation ... the effects of common genes and common environments are difficult to disentangle. Resolving this issue requires studies of twins raised apart."

Primary source: Byne E. "The Biological Evidence Challenged." Scientific American, 1994; May (50-55).

95. Other physicians have also criticized the study for overvaluing the genetic influence.

Primary source: Lidz T, "A Reply to 'A Genetic Study of Male Sexual Orientation.'" [Letter]. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1993; Vol. 50 (240)

96. Dr. Byne's arguments might lead some activists to label him a "homophobe." He is, in reality, quite the contrary. Byne readily advocates societal acceptance of homosexuality, but nevertheless concludes, "Most of the links in the chain of reasoning from biology to social policy [regarding homosexuality] do not hold up under scrutiny."

Primary source: Ibid.

X CONCLUSION

Conclusion

Homosexuality has become an increasingly prevalent part of modern society. It has infiltrated our schools, our news media, our entertainment media and may soon redefine our concept of marriage.
However, homosexuality is by its very nature dangerous to those who practice it. And society is doing homosexuals a disservice when it endorses and promotes homosexuality as normal. In doing so, it is encouraging these Americans to engage in self-destructive behavior.

Homosexuality is an issue of morality. But it is also an fundamental issue of public health. The evidence is clear. American government, educational systems, and courts should note the facts presented in this paper and advance public policy and curricula that encourage sound behavior rather than offering special protection and endorsement to a behavior that threatens individuals as well as public health.

The future of America hangs in the balance. If society is not willing to address the homosexual issue on moral grounds, then the medical evidence alone should be enough to convince the fair-minded that homosexuality is incompatible with good public health.

Primary source:

http://www.homosexuellt.com/infosida/show_article.asp?Idnr=207

This is actually a Swedish site. It is the secondary source of all primary sourced bold passages of this thread. I have merely made a "reader's digest" of it, working the references off sequentially, regardless of how important, or how supportive of my personal views they may have been.

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